ваш помощник в управлении весом
Почему мы переедаем и толстеем?
коротко: вероятнее всего такое поведение является следствием нашей эволюции

существует несколько предположений относительно того,
почему стремление тела к пище превышает его реальные потребности,-
наиболее вероятным считается предположение о том, что повышенный аппетит связан
с эволюционными особенностями питания человека в ранний период эволюции, -

до возникновения сельского хозяйства особенность состояла в том,
что питание было сезонным, -

  • еда в сезоны была доступна,
  • а в несезоны - становилась скудной,

поэтому во время сезонов тело старалось есть выше своих потребностей,
чтобы накопить достаточный запас на предстоящий несезон
считается, что именно в этот период и был сформирован генотип человека,
относительно регуляции голода и аппетита

 

примерно 50 лет назад в большинстве стран
наступила полная (круглогодичная) достаточность питания, -
теперь продукты доступны всегда и «несезонов» не наступает

однако по эволюционным меркам достаточность питания возникла не так давно,
поэтому генотип еще не «перестроился» под новые условия,
в результате наше тело еще «не знает», что «несезонов» больше нет,
и на фоне достаточности питания
продолжает накапливать «нужный запас» на «предстоящий несезон»,
что и привело к росту избыточного веса в большинстве стран планеты

 

это не означает, что в сложившейся ситуации ничего невозможно сделать,
потому что в отличии от например, собаки у нас есть ум, -
с помощью которого мы можем разумно регулировать количество еды
с учетом актуальных целей в весе

источники

Павлов И. П. Двадцатилетний опыт объективного изучения высшей деятельности (поведения) животных. 
— М.: Наука, 1973. — 661 с.

 

Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. 
Elia M, Stubbs RJ, Henry CJ. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10574520

 

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders 
Kent C.Berridge Chao-YiHo Jocelyn M. Richard Alexandra G.DiFelice antonio 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006899310008115

 

Hedonic hunger: A new dimension of appetite? 
Michael R.LoweMeghan L.Butryn 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938407001321

 

Food reward. What it is and how to measure it 
Peter J.RogersaCharlotte A.Hardmanb 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666315000793

 

Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking 
Kent C.Berridge 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/014976349500033B

 

Stimulus-induced eating when satiated 
Carol E.Cornell JudithRodin HarveyWeingarten
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0031938489902813

 

Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time 
Suzanna E.ForwoodaAmy L.AhernbGareth J.HollandsaYin-LamNgaTheresa M.Marteaua 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666315000276

 

How Many Calories Are on Our Plate? Expected Fullness, Not Liking, Determines Meal‐size Selection 
Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Peter J. Rogers
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1038/oby.2009.201

 

A Nonadaptive Scenario Explaining the Genetic Predisposition to Obesity: The “Predation Release” Hypothesis 
John R.Speakman 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S155041310700160X

 

Body mass change strategies in blackbirds Turdus merula: the starvation–predation risk trade‐off 
R. Macleod, P. Barnett, J. A. Clark, W. Cresswell 
https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00923.x

 

Differences in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism between lean and obese subjects undergoing total starvation. 
Elia M, Stubbs RJ, Henry CJ. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10574520

 

Learning to starve: impacts of food limitation beyond the stress period 
Marshall D. McCue, John S. Terblanche, Joshua B. Benoit 
Journal of Experimental Biology 2017 220: 4330-4338; doi: 10.1242/jeb.157867 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/220/23/4330.long 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29187615

 

The biochemistry of natural fasting at its limits. 
Castellini MA, Rea LD. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1612138

 

The comparative physiology of food deprivation: from feast to famine. 
Wang T, Hung CC, Randall DJ. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16460272

 

An Introduction to Fasting, Starvation, and Food Limitation 
Marshall D. McCue 
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-29056-5_1

 

Torpor during Reproduction in Mammals and Birds: Dealing with an Energetic Conundrum 
B. M. McAllan Fritz Geiser Integrative and Comparative Biology, Volume 54, Issue 3, 1 September 2014, Pages 516–532, 
https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/icu093 
https://academic.oup.com/icb/article/54/3/516/2797887

 

Weight and tissue changes in long term starved frogs Rana esculenta 
Sarah Grably Yvette Piery 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0300962981901560?via%3Dihub

 

Snakes survive starvation by employing supply- and demand-side economic strategies. 
McCue MD 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644357

 

A nonadaptive scenario explaining the genetic predisposition to obesity: the "predation release" hypothesis. 
Speakman JR
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618852%20 
https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(07)00160-X

 

The new biology of body weight regulation. 
Schwartz MW1, Seeley RJ. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8990418

 

Human obesity as a heritable disorder of the central control of energy balance 
S O'Rahilly, I S Farooqi International Journal of Obesity volume32, pagesS55–S61 (2008) https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2008239

 

A Missing Link in Body Weight Homeostasis: The Catabolic Signal of the Overfed State 
Yann Ravussin, Rudolph L.Leibel 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413114003994

 

Ожирение – болезнь нашего времени дмн В. Прозоровский 
Санкт-Петербург Наука и жизнь, №9 2003 
https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/3380/

 

The Hormonal Control of Food Intake Anthony 
P.CollI. SadafFarooqi1StephenO'Rahilly 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867407004473

 

Neural Control of Energy Balance: Translating Circuits to Therapies 
LaurentGautron, Joel K.Elmquis, Kevin W.Williams
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867415001890

 

Optimising foods for satiety 
LucyChambersab KeriMcCrickerda Martin R.Yeomansa 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224414002386?via%3Dihub

 

The Hunger Genes: Pathways to Obesity 
Agatha A.van der Klaauw I. SadafFarooqi 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867415002615

 

Appetite control and energy balance regulation in the modern world: reward-driven brain overrides repletion signals 
H Zheng, N R Lenard, A C Shin, H-R Berthoud
https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo200965

 

Gastric capacity, test meal intake, and appetitive hormones in binge eating disorder 
Allan Geliebter Eric K.Yahav Marci E.Gluck Sami A.Hashim https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938404001635

 

Obesity and the Regulation of Energy Balance 
Bruce M. Spiegelman, Jeffrey S. Flier
http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(01)00240-9?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0092867401002409%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

 

The phenomenon of famine. 
Scrimshaw NS. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3300728

 

Appetite and Gut Hormones Response to a Putative α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Salacia Chinensis, in Overweight / Obese Adults: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. 
Hao L, Schlussel Y, Fieselmann K, Schneider SH, Shapses SA. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28805670

 

Gut hormones and appetite control. 
Wren AM, Bloom SR. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17498507

 

Gastrointestinal satiety signals III. Glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide. 
Stanley S, Wynne K, Bloom S. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15068960

 

Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite. 
Huda MS, Wilding JP, Pinkney JH. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16629873

 

Gastrointestinal satiety signals. 
Chaudhri OB1, Field BC, Bloom SR. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19136988

 

Gut hormones as peripheral anti obesity targets. 
Small CJ, Bloom SR. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15544446

 

Gut hormones and the control of appetite. 
Small CJ, Bloom SR. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15358278

 

Appetite and energy balancing 
Peter J.Rogers Jeffrey M.Brunstrom 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938416301196?via%3Dihub#bb0035 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27059321

 

Episodic Memory and Appetite Regulation in Humans 
Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Jeremy F. Burn, Nicola R. Sell, Jane M. Collingwood, Peter J. Rogers, Laura L. Wilkinson, Elanor C. Hinton, Olivia M. Maynard, Danielle Ferriday 
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050707

 

Allostasis: A model of predictive regulation 
Peter Sterling
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938411003076

 

Hunger and satiety as conditioned reflexes. 
Booth DA. 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15744433_Hunger_and_satiety_as_conditioned_reflexes

 

Regulation of hunger and satiety in man. 
Plata-Salamán CR. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1752065

 

Is the Energy Homeostasis System Inherently Biased Toward Weight Gain? 
Michael W. Schwartz1, Stephen C. Woods, Randy J. Seeley, Gregory S. Barsh, Denis G. Baskin, Rudolph L. Leibel http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/2/232

 

Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects 
B A Parker, K Sturm, C G MacIntosh, C Feinle, M Horowitz, I M Chapman 
https://www.nature.com/articles/1601768
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14749739

 

Leading the consumer by the nose: on the commercialization of olfactory design for the food and beverage sector, 
Charles Spence
https://flavourjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13411-015-0041-1

 

Auditory contributions to flavour perception and feeding behaviour 
Charles Spence 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938412001813

 

Effects of Visual Food Texture on Taste Perception 
Katsunori Okajima, Charles Spence 
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/ic966

 

Effects of overfeeding on the neuronal response to visual food cues. 
Cornier MA1, Von Kaenel SS, Bessesen DH, Tregellas JR.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17921372

 

Tasting with Eyes 
Nobuyuki Sakai 
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/ic945

 

Leptin and seasonal mammals. 
Rousseau K, Atcha Z, Loudon AS. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12622842

 

Food Reward in the Absence of Taste Receptor Signaling 
Ivan E. de Araujo, etc.
https://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(08)00119-0

 

Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review 
Richard A. Washburn,  Amanda N. Szabo, Kate Lambourne, Erik A. Willis, Lauren T. Ptomey, 1Jeffery J. Honas,Stephen D. Herrmann, and Joseph E. Donnelly  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198137/

 

Central regulation of energy balance: inputs, outputs and leptin resistance. Arch JR1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15877921

 

The temporal organization of ingestive behaviour and its interaction with regulation of energy balance. 
Strubbe JH, van Dijk G. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12204194

 

New model for the regulation of energy balance and adiposity by the central nervous system. 
Kaiyala KJ, Woods SC, Schwartz MW. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7484931

 

Appetite control and energy balance regulation in the modern world: Reward-driven brain overrides repletion signals Huiyuan Zheng, Natalie Lenard, Andrew Shin, and Hans-Rudolf Berthoud https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838178/ 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19528982

 

A systematic review of the effects of experimental fasting on cognition 
Erik M.Benaua, Natalia C.Orloffa, E. AmyJankea LucySerpellbc C. AlixTimkoa https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666314001081

 

When satiety evaluation is inspired by sensory analysis: A new approach 
AurélieLesdémaab, etc. 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329315300057

 

Debunking a myth: neurohormonal and vagal modulation of sleep centers, not redistribution of blood flow, may account for postprandial somnolence 
Kimberly A.Bazara A.JoonYunb Patrick Y.Leeb 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987704003081

 

Ghrelin Modulates Brain Activity in Areas that Control Appetitive Behavior Saima Malik, etc. 
https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(08)00078-8

 

The effect of a medium-term activity- and diet-induced energy deficit on subjective appetite sensations in obese children, 
N A King, etc.
https://www.nature.com/articles/0803391

 

Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss 
N A King, etc. 
https://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v32/n1/full/0803712a.html

 

Is there evidence for a set point that regulates human body weight? 
Manfred J Müller, Anja Bosy-Westphal, and Steven B Heymsfield 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990627/

 

Preoccupation, food, and failure: An investigation of cognitive performance deficits in dieters 
Nicola Jones, Peter J. Rogers 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eat.10124

 

Effects of small-intestinal fat and carbohydrate infusions on appetite and food intake in obese and nonobese men 
Ian M Chapman Elizabeth A Goble Gary A Wittert Michael Horowitz 
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/69/1/6/4694109

 

Caloric Restriction But Not Exercise-Induced Reductions in Fat Mass Decrease Plasma Triiodothyronine Concentrations: A Randomized Controlled 
Trial Edward P. Weiss, Dennis T. Villareal, Susan B. Racette, Karen Steger-May, Bhartur N. Premachandra, Samuel Klein, and Luigi Fontana 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2649744/

 

Low Calorie Dieting Increases 
Cortisol A. Janet Tomiyama, Ph.D.,a Traci Mann, Ph.D.,b Danielle Vinas, B.A.,c Jeffrey M. Hunger, B.A.,b Jill DeJager, MPH., RD,d and Shelley E. Taylor, Ph.D.c 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2895000/

 

Effect of human body weight changes on circulating levels of peptide YY and peptide YY3-36. 
Pfluger PT, Kampe J, Castaneda TR, Vahl T, D'Alessio DA, Kruthaupt T, Benoit SC, Cuntz U, Rochlitz HJ, Moehlig M, Pfeiffer AF, Koebnick C, Weickert MO, Otto B, Spranger J, Tschöp MH. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119001 
https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/92/2/583/2566792

 

Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving 
Ellenvan Kleefa Mitsuru Shimizub Brian Wansinkb https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0950329312001188

 

Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings 
Alice A. Gibson and Amanda Sainsbury 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618052/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696389

 

Is glycemic index of food a feasible predictor of appetite, hunger, and satiety? 
Niwano Y, Adachi T, Kashimura J, Sakata T, Sasaki H, Sekine K, Yamamoto S, Yonekubo A, Kimura S. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19602827 
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnsv/55/3/55_3_201/_article

 

Relationship of satiety to postprandial glycaemic, insulin and cholecystokinin responses. 
Holt S, Brand J, Soveny C, Hansky J. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1610161?dopt=Abstract

 

Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. 
Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults. 
Kristensen M, Jensen MG, Riboldi G, Petronio M, Bügel S, Toubro S, Tetens I, Astrup A. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19837118

 

Dietary fibre and satiety 
J. Slavin, H. Green
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00603.x

 

Satiety effects of psyllium in healthy volunteers 
Jose M.Bruma Roger D.Gibba John C.Petersb Richard D.Mattesc https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666316301738

 

The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake 
Alicia L Carreiro, Jaapna Dhillon, Susannah Gordon, Ashley G Jacobs, Kelly A Higgins, Breanna M McArthur, Benjamin W Redan, Rebecca L Rivera, Leigh R Schmidt, and Richard D Mattes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4960974/ 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27431364

 

Short-term effects of different amounts of protein, fats, and carbohydrates on satiety 
C de Graaf T Hulshof J A Weststrate P Jas The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 55, Issue 1, 1 January 1992, Pages 33–38, 
https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/55.1.33 
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/55/1/33/4715292?redirectedFrom=fulltext

 

Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake 
Julie E. Flood1,2 and Barbara J. Rolls 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2128765/

 

The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men. 
Pal S, Ellis V. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20456814

 

Emotional overeating and its associations with eating disorder psychopathology among overweight patients with Binge eating disorder 
Robin M. Masheb PhD, Carlos M. Grilo PhD 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eat.20221

 

Experimental analyses of the effects of variety in a meal on human feeding 
B J Rolls The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 42, Issue 5, 1 November 1985, Pages 932–939 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/42.5.932 
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/42/5/932/4692173

 

Is it possible to dissociate 'liking' and 'wanting' for foods in humans? A novel experimental procedure. 
Finlayson G, King N, Blundell JE. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17052736

 

The role of implicit wanting in relation to explicit liking and wanting for food: implications for appetite control. 
Finlayson G, King N, Blundell J. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17655972/

 

Liking compared with wanting for high- and low-calorie foods in anorexia nervosa: aberrant food reward even after weight restoration. 
Cowdrey FA, Finlayson G, Park RJ. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364019

 

Validation of the flexible and rigid control dimensions of dietary restraint. 
Westenhoefer J1, Stunkard AJ, Pudel V. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10349584

 

Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control. 
Bellisle F. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19393389

 

Disinhibition: its effects on appetite and weight regulation. 
Bryant EJ1, King NA, Blundell JE.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179615

 

On the relation of flexible and rigid control of eating to body mass index and overeating in patients with binge eating disorder. 
Masheb RM, Grilo CM. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11835301

 

Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect? 
Bridget A Cassady Robert V Considine Richard D Mattes 
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/95/3/587/4578296

 

Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake 
Suzanne Higgs Jessica E.Donohoe 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666311001371

 

Playing a computer game during lunch affects fullness, memory for lunch, and later snack intake 
Rose E Oldham-Cooper Charlotte A Hardman Charlotte E Nicoll Peter J RogersJeffrey M Brunstrom https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/93/2/308/4597636

 

Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies 
P J Rogers, etc. 
https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2015177

 

Познакомьтесь с простоЕМ

спасибо за регистрацию, это 10-минутное видео научит пользоваться программой и познакомит с принципами эффективного снижения веса

Вы можете вернуться к просмотру кликнув на значок "i"

Познакомьтесь с простоЕМ

спасибо за регистрацию, это 10-минутное видео научит пользоваться программой и познакомит с принципами эффективного снижения веса